Amended October 2008, December 2009 and June 2011
Organic production is a holistic system designed to optimize the productivity and fitness of diverse communities within the agro-ecosystem, including soil organisms, plants, livestock and people. The principal goal of organic production is to develop enterprises that are sustainable and harmonious with the environment.
CAN/CGSB-32.310, Organic Production Systems – General Principles and Management Standards, describes the principles and management standards of organic production systems.
CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists, provides lists of substances that are allowed for use in organic production systems.
As in the case of all products sold in Canada, organic inputs, such as, but not limited to, fertilizers, feed supplements, pesticides, soil mendments, veterinary treatments, processing additives or aids, sanitizing and cleaning material; and products derived from organic agriculture, such as, but not limited to, feed and food should comply with all applicable regulatory requirements.
Organic production is based on principles that support healthy practices. These principles aim to increase the quality and the durability of the environment through specific management and production methods. They also focus on ensuring the humane treatment of animals.
The general principles of organic production include the following:
Neither this standard1 nor organic products in accordance with this standard represent specific claims about the health, safety and nutrition of such organic products.
Management methods are carefully selected in order to restore and then sustain ecological stability within the enterprise and the surrounding environment. Soil fertility is maintained and enhanced by promoting optimal biological activity within the soil and conservation of soil resources. Weeds, pests and diseases are managed using biological and mechanical control methods, and cultural practices, including minimized tillage. Crop selection and rotation are important for managing nutrient cycling, recycling of plant and animal residues, water management, augmentation of beneficial insects to encourage a balanced predator–prey relationship, and the promotion of biological diversity, and ecologically based pest management.
Under a system of organic production, livestock are provided with living conditions and space allowances appropriate to their behavioural requirements, and organically produced feed. These practices strive to minimize stress, promote good health and prevent disease.
Organic products are produced and processed under a system that strives to preserve the integrity of the principles in this standard.
Organic practices and this standard cannot assure that organic products are entirely free of residues of substances prohibited by this standard and of other contaminants, since exposure to such compounds from the atmosphere, soil, ground water and other sources may be beyond the control of the operator. The practices permitted by this standard are designed to assure the least possible residues at the lowest possible levels.
In the development of the standard, it was recognized that differences between Canada's agricultural regions require varying practices to meet production needs.
This standard is intended for certification and regulation to prevent deceptive practices in the marketplace. The certification of a process, rather than a final product, demands responsible action by all involved parties.
1 References throughout this document to "this standard" refer to CAN/CGSB-32.310, Organic Production Systems — General Principles and Management Standards.
1.1 Foods and other agricultural products shall refer to organic production methods only if they come from a farm system employing management practices that seek to nurture ecosystems in order to achieve sustainable productivity; and that provide weed, pest and disease control through enhancement of biodiversity, recycling of plant and animal residues, crop selection and rotation, water management, tillage and cultivation.
1.2 This standard applies to the following products:
1.3 Quantities and dimensions in this standard are given in metric units with yard/pound equivalents, mostly obtained through soft conversion, given in parentheses. The metric units shall be regarded as official in the event of dispute or unforeseen difficulty arising from the conversion.
1.4 Prohibited Substances, Methods or Ingredients in Organic Production and Handling
1.4.1 When producing or handling organic products, it is forbidden to use any of the following substances or techniques:
1.4.2 The same ingredient in both an organic and non-organic form shall not be present in an organic product.
2.1 The following publications are referenced in this standard:
2.1.1 Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB)
CAN/CGSB-32.311 – Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists.
2.1.2 Health Canada
Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c. 870).
2.2 A dated reference in this standard is to the issue specified. An undated reference in this standard is to the latest issue. The sources are given in the Notes section.
3.1 The following definitions and terms apply in this standard:
Note: In Canada, regulations require that the resulting feed must be acceptable for registration.
4.1 The operator of an enterprise shall prepare an organic plan outlining the details of transition, production, preparation, handling and management practices, in accordance with this standard.
4.2 The organic plan shall be updated annually to address changes to the plan or management system, problems encountered in executing the plan, and measures taken to overcome such problems.
4.3 The organic plan shall include a description of the internal record-keeping system, with documents sufficient to meet traceability requirements as specified in par. 4.4.1 and record-keeping requirements.
4.4 Record Keeping and Identification – The operator seeking to comply with this standard shall maintain records and relevant supporting documents concerning the inputs and details of their use, production, preparation, handling and transport of organic crops, livestock and products. The operator is responsible for maintaining the organic integrity of the product and shall fully record and disclose all activities and transactions in sufficient detail as to be readily understood, and ,to demonstrate compliance to this standard.
4.4.1 Records shall make it possible to trace
4.4.2 Records shall be maintained for not less than five years beyond their creation.
4.4.3 An identification system shall be provided for distinguishing organic and on-organic crops, livestock (e.g. general appearance, colour, variety and types) and products.
5.1.1 This standard shall be fully applied on a production unit for at least 12 months before the first harvest of products. Substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 and substances not in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists, shall not have been used for at least 36 months before the harvest of any organic crop.
Note: The Canadian Organic Products Regulations require operators to document that they have not used substances prohibited by this standard and substances not listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists. The Organic Products Regulations also require that, in the case of an initial application for an organic certification of field crops, the application for certification must be filed 15 months before the day on which the product is expected to be marketed. During that period of time, compliance to (or with)the standard will be assessed by the certification body, and this assessment must at least include one inspection of the production unit during production in the year before field crops may be eligible for certification and one inspection during production in the year field crops are eligible for certification.
5.1.2 The enterprise shall aim at a complete transition of its production. During the transition period, the enterprise can maintain, in addition to the production in transition, a non-organic system of production (split operation) that shall be entirely separate and identified separately, pending its incorporation into the overall transition process. The enterprise can be converted one unit at a time, and each converted unit shall respect the requirements of this standard. The exception to this norm, parallel production, is only allowed in the following cases: perennial crops (already planted), agricultural research facilities, production of seed, vegetative propagating materials and transplants.
The following special conditions shall be observed for parallel production;
Note: Parallel production crops both organic and non-organic must be inspected just prior to harvest and an audit of all parallel production crops must occur after harvest.
5.1.3 All production units shall have distinct, defined boundaries.
5.1.4 When unintended contact with substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 is possible, distinct buffer zones or other features sufficient to reasonably prevent contamination are required:
5.1.5 Crops grown in buffer zones shall be considered non-organically grown products whether they are used on the farm or not.
5.1.6 Production units shall not be alternated between organic and non-organic production methods.
5.2.1 Measures shall be taken to minimize the physical movement of substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 from neighbouring areas onto organic farmland and crops. Similarly, measures shall be taken to minimize the contamination of land and crops with such substances.
5.2.2 The use of posts or wood treated with materials other than those in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, is prohibited.
5.3.1 The operator shall use organic seed, bulbs, tubers, cuttings, annual seedlings, transplants and other propagules produced in accordance with this standard.
5.3.2 Exceptions or Conditions
126.96.36.199 A variety of non-organic untreated seed and planting stock or seed treated only with substances in accordance with this standard may be used provided that the organically produced seed or planting stock variety
188.8.131.52 Non-organic perennial planting stock may be used provided that the organic products were harvested after such plants have been maintained in accordance with this standard for at least one year. The land on which the stock is planted shall meet the requirements in par. 5.1.1.
184.108.40.206 Plant varieties, seeds, seed inoculant, germ plasm, scions, rootstocks or other propagules developed through the use of genetic engineering are prohibited, in accordance with par. 1.4.1.
5.4.1 The main objective of the soil fertility and crop nutrient management program shall be to establish and maintain a fertile soil using practices that maintain or increase soil humus levels, that promote an optimum balance and supply of nutrients, and that stimulate biological activity within the soil.
5.4.2 The fertility and biological activity of the soil shall be maintained or increased, where appropriate, by
5.4.3 The operator shall select and implement tillage and cultivation practices that maintain or improve the physical, chemical and biological condition of soil, that minimize damage to the structure and tilth of soil, and that minimize soil erosion.
5.4.4 The operator shall manage plant and livestock materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content, crop nutrients, and soil fertility in a manner that does not contribute to the contamination of crops, soil or water, by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals or residues of substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1.
5.4.5 Except as provided in par. 5.5.1, the organic matter produced on the enterprise shall be the basis of the nutrient cycling program and may be supplemented with off-farm organic and non-organic nutrient sources specified in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists.
5.4.6 The operator shall not use burning to dispose of crop residues produced on the operation, except that burning may be used to suppress the spread of disease or to stimulate seed germination.
5.5.1 Manure Sources – The operator shall first use all available animal manure produced on the organic operation (on-farm) and then may use manure from other organic operations (off-farm). When manure from organic operations is not available in sufficient quantities, the operator may use manure from non-organic farm operations provided that
Note: Organic operations should make it a priority to use manure obtained from transition or extensive livestock operations and not originating from landless livestock production operations or from livestock operations using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their derivatives in animal feeds.
5.5.2 Land Application of Manure
220.127.116.11 The essential elements of an organic manure application program shall address land area, rate of application, time of application, soil incorporation and retention of nutrient components.
18.104.22.168 All soil amendments including liquid manure, slurries, compost tea, solid manure, raw manure, compost and other approved substances shall be applied to land in accordance with nutrient management planning principles.
Note: In Canada, some additional provincial requirements may also apply.
22.214.171.124 Where manure is applied, the soil shall be sufficiently warm and moist to ensure active bio-oxidation.
126.96.36.199 In season, the timing, rate and method of manure application shall be designed to ensure that manure application
188.8.131.52 The non-composted solid or liquid manure shall be
5.6.1 Pest, disease and weed control shall be centred on organic management practices aimed at enhancing crop health and reducing losses caused by weeds, disease and pests. Organic management practices include cultural practices (e.g. rotations, establishment of a balanced ecosystem, and use of resistant varieties) and mechanical techniques (e.g. sanitation measures, cultivation, traps, mulches and grazing).
5.6.2 When the organic management practices alone cannot prevent or control crop pests, disease or weeds, a biological or botanical substance, or other substances in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, may be applied. However, the conditions for using the substance shall be documented in the organic plan, in accordance with section 4.
5.6.3 Application equipment (e.g. spray equipment) used for soil nutrient supplements, disease or pest management on the enterprise shall be cleaned thoroughly between applications to remove residues of applied substances. If products presenting a contamination risk have been previously applied with the equipment, equipment parts from which residue cannot be removed shall be replaced.
6.1.1 Livestock for organic production shall be raised according to this standard.
6.1.2 Livestock can make an important contribution to an organic farming system by
6.1.3 Livestock production is a land-related activity.
6.1.4 Livestock stocking rates shall recognize the differences between Canada's agro-climatic regions and take into consideration feed production capacity, stock health, nutrient balance and environmental impact.
6.1.5 Organic livestock management shall aim to utilize natural breeding methods, minimize stress, prevent disease, progressively eliminate the use of chemical allopathic veterinary drugs (including antibiotics), and maintain animal health and welfare.
6.2.1 The choice of breeds, strains and breeding methods shall be consistent with the principles of this standard and, in particular, shall take into account
6.2.2 Livestock used for organic livestock products shall
6.2.3 Animals purchased for breeding shall be from organic enterprises. By way of derogation, when it can be shown that suitable organic breeding stock are not available, non-gestating breeder animals and breeding males may be brought from a non-organic operation onto an organic operation and integrated into the organic system. However, the meat from such animals shall not be organic. Livestock from non-organic sources shall not be considered as organic breeding stock outside the organic operation if raised according to this standard for less than 12 months.
6.2.4 All livestock or edible livestock products that are removed from an organic enterprise and subsequently managed on a non-organic enterprise shall not be considered as organically produced, in accordance with this standard.
6.3.1 When an entire dairy herd is being converted to organic production, the operator shall,
6.3.2 The transition of the land intended for feed crops or pasture shall comply with par. 5.1.
6.3.3 During the final year of transition, animal feed and pasture of the enterprise can be used as organic by the production unit of the enterprise. The feed shall not be considered as organic outside of this unit.
6.3.4 New breeding stock brought onto the farm to expand production may consume third year transition pasture forage during the first and second trimester.
6.4.1 The operator of an organic livestock operation shall provide livestock with a feed ration balanced to meet their nutritional requirements and consisting of feedstuffs produced in accordance with this standard.
6.4.2 Livestock feed shall consist of substances that are necessary and essential for maintaining the animals' health, well-being and vitality and that meet the physiological and behavioural needs of the species in question.
6.4.3 Specific livestock rations shall take into account the following:
6.4.4 The operator of an organic operation shall not provide organic livestock with
6.4.5 Animals shall be provided with clean fresh water on demand.
6.4.6 The force feeding of ducks and geese is prohibited.
Breeding methods shall conform to the principles of organic production in this standard. The operator shall
6.6.1 Livestock shall be managed responsibly with care and respect. Stress shall be minimized in all handling practices.
Note: In Canada, see also the Health of Animals Regulations under the Health of Animals Act (Canadian Food Inspection Agency).
6.6.2 The transport and slaughter of livestock shall be managed to minimize stress, injury and suffering. The use of electrical stimulation or allopathic tranquilizers is prohibited.
6.6.3 The animals shall have suitable shelter against inclement weather conditions (e.g. wind, rain, excessive heat and cold) during transportation and before slaughter.
6.6.4 Efforts shall be made to transport animals directly from the farm to their final destination.
6.6.5 The duration of transportation shall be as short as possible.
6.6.6 Animals too ill to be transported shall be suitably euthanized, without cruelty.
6.7.1 The operator shall establish and maintain preventive livestock health care practices, including
6.7.2 Physical alterations are prohibited except when absolutely necessary to improve the health, welfare or hygiene of animals, or for identification or safety reasons. Physical alterations shall be undertaken in a manner that minimizes pain, stress and suffering, with consideration to the use of anaesthetics, sedatives and non-steroid anti-inflammatory analgesics (e.g. ketoprofen).
6.7.3 Where preventive practices and vaccines are inadequate to prevent sickness or injury and where disease and health problems require treatment, the use of biological, cultural, and physical treatments and practices is permitted, in accordance with CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
6.7.4 Medical treatment for sick or injured livestock shall not be withheld to preserve their organic status. All appropriate medications shall be used to restore livestock to health when methods acceptable to organic production fail. Shipping of diseased livestock to slaughter for human consumption is prohibited. Sick and medicated animals shall be quarantined from healthy livestock.
6.7.5 Products from sick animals or those undergoing treatment with restricted substances shall not be organic or fed to organic livestock.
6.7.6 The use of veterinary medicinal substances in organic production systems shall conform to the following:
6.7.7 Hormonal treatment shall only be used for therapeutic reasons and under veterinary supervision. The meat from animals so treated shall not be organic meat unless the treatment is permitted by CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
6.7.8 The operator of an organic livestock operation shall not administer
6.7.9 Organic livestock operations shall have a comprehensive plan to minimize parasite problems in livestock.
6.7.10 Except as provided in par. 6.7.9, no breeding livestock or poultry treated with a parasiticide or veterinary drug (not listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists) shall be considered as an organic meat animal.
6.7.11 Injured, diseased or sick animals shall receive individual treatment designed to minimize pain and suffering, which may include euthanasia.
6.7.12 Forced moulting of poultry is prohibited.
6.8.1 The operator of an organic livestock operation shall establish and maintain animal living-conditions that accommodate the health and natural behaviour of all animals, including
6.8.2 The operator of an organic livestock operation may provide temporary confinement for livestock owing to
6.8.3 Except for lactating cows, the continuous tethering of livestock is not permitted. When tie stalls are used in dairy barns in the winter season, cows shall be allowed a period of exercise each day, when possible, and at least twice a week.
6.8.4 Housing, pens, runs, equipment and utensils shall be properly cleaned and disinfected to prevent cross infection and build-up of disease-carrying organisms.
6.8.5 All livestock in a single production unit shall be reared in accordance with this standard. Individual animals with non-organic status may be present in the production unit if they are clearly identified and managed in accordance with this standard. Non-organic livestock production units may be present on a farm if clearly identified and kept separate from the organic livestock production.
6.8.6 Animals reared in accordance with the provisions of this standard may be grazed with other animals on common land (i.e. crown range or community pasture), provided that
6.8.7 Herbivores shall have access to pasture, during the grazing season, and to the open air or outdoor exercise area at other times weather permitting. Exceptions to the pasture requirement are allowed for
6.8.8 Cattle – The minimum indoor and outdoor space requirements for cattle are as follows:
|Indoor Space||Outdoor Runs and Rens|
|Calves||Incremental increase of 2.5 m2/head for young calves to 5 m2/head for growing (1-year old) steers and heifers||5 m2/head to 9 m2/head, depending on the size of animals|
6.8.9 Sheep and Goats – The minimum indoor and outdoor space requirements for sheep and goats are as follows:
|Indoor Space||Outdoor Runs and Rens|
|1.5m2 plus 0.35 m2/head for each additional lamb/kid/head||2.5 m2/head plus 0.5 m2/head for each additional lamb/kid|
6.8.10 Housing of Dairy Calves
184.108.40.206 The housing of calves in individual pens and hutches is permitted provided the following conditions are met:
220.127.116.11 Calves shall be group-housed following weaning.
18.104.22.168 As appropriate for the season, dairy replacement calves over nine months of age shall have access to pasture.
Note: This paragraph is in addition to the standards that apply to all livestock in par. 6.1 to 6.8.
22.214.171.124 The operator of an organic poultry operation shall establish and maintain poultry living conditions that accommodate the health and natural behaviour of poultry:
126.96.36.199 Ducks and geese shall have access to a water area created for their use, when weather conditions permit. Facility design shall address the need to prevent the co-mingling of wild waterfowl and domestic poultry.
188.8.131.52 Laying hens shall have access to an adequate number of nests according to recommended best management practices.
184.108.40.206 Surfaces to perch shall be provided for all laying hens at not less than 18 cm/hen. Perch area can include raised perches, nest rails and raised floors.
220.127.116.11 Birds shall have sufficient exit areas to ensure that all birds have ready access to the outdoors. Exits shall allow the passage of more than one bird at a time.
18.104.22.168 Litter shall be provided and maintained in a dry manner. Houses with slatted floors shall have 30% minimum of solid floor area with sufficient litter available for dust baths, scratching and foraging.
22.214.171.124 Facilities shall permit poultry access to an adequate number of drinkers and feeders according to recommended best management practices.
126.96.36.199 Natural light shall be provided indoors for all poultry. If day length is artificially prolonged, the total duration of light shall not exceed 16 hours and shall be terminated by gradual reduction of light intensity.
188.8.131.52 The maximum indoor and outdoor densities for poultry are as follows:
|Stocking Density||Layers||Broilers||Turkeys/Large birds|
|Indoors||6 birds/m2||21 kg/m2||26 kg/m2|
|Outdoor runs||4 birds/m2||21 kg/m2*||17 kg/m2|
* Taking into consideration the requirements of par. 6.8.1 i. and 184.108.40.206 b. i.
220.127.116.11 For pasture-based operations and mobile units, the stocking density shall be no more than 2000 layers per hectare (800 per acre), 2500 broilers per hectare (1000 per acre) or 1300 large birds (turkeys/geese) per hectare (540 per acre) calculated using the total amount of land available for rotation.
18.104.22.168 For poultry, buildings shall be emptied, cleaned and disinfected, and runs left empty to allow the vegetation to grow back between flocks.
22.214.171.124 The keeping of rabbits in cages is not permitted.
126.96.36.199 The minimum indoor and outdoor space requirements for rabbits are as follows:
|Indoor Space||Outdoor Runs and Pens|
|Young rabbits||0.3 m2/head||2 m2/head|
|Pregnant does||0.5 m2/head||2 m2/head|
|Does and offspring||0.7 m2 of floor space/doe and offspring||2 m2/head|
|Bucks||0.3 m2/head||2 m2/head|
6.8.13 Pigs/Wild Boar (farm-raised)
Note: This paragraph is in addition to the standards that apply to all livestock in par. 6.1 to 6.8.
188.8.131.52 The size of individual livestock operations shall respect a ratio of land-owned, leased or available for spreading manure of animals housed, based on a balance between animal units, feed production and manure management. Farrow to finish operators shall not exceed 2.5 sows/ha.
184.108.40.206 Pigs shall have access to outdoor exercise areas. Access to pasture is recommended but not mandatory. Outdoor areas for pigs may also include woodlands or other natural environments, in which case the same guidelines regarding pasture management shall apply, i.e. management systems shall be designed to avoid soil degradation, long-term damage to the vegetation or water contamination.
220.127.116.11 Sows shall be kept in groups, except in the last stages of pregnancy and during the suckling period. Management systems shall be designed to avoid restraining sows. Restraint is allowed for a maximum of 5 days when needed for piglet protection. Individual pens are allowed for the protection of females during estrus for a period of up to 5 days or for other health reasons.
18.104.22.168 Piglets shall not be weaned before 4 weeks of age. Earlier weaning is allowed if the welfare of the sow and piglets is compromised.
22.214.171.124 Piglets shall not be kept on flat decks or in piglet cages.
126.96.36.199 Boars may be housed in individual enclosures if there is visual and tactile contact with other pigs.
188.8.131.52 Indoor and outdoor exercise areas shall permit rooting by the animals.
184.108.40.206 The use of nose rings is prohibited.
220.127.116.11 The minimum indoor and outdoor space requirements for pigs are as follows:
|Pigs Size||Indoor Space||Outdoor Runs and Pens|
|Sows and piglets (up to 40 days' old)||7.5 m2 for each sow and litter||Not required|
|a. up to 30 kg||0.6 m2/head||0.4 m2/head|
|b. 30–50 kg||0.8 m2/head||0.6 m2/head|
|c. 50–85 kg||1.1 m2/head||0.8 m2/head|
|d. >85 kg||1.3 m2/head||1.0 m2/head|
|Sows in group pens||3 m2/head||3 m2/head|
|Boars in individual pens||9 m2/head||9 m2/head|
6.9.1 Manure management practices used to maintain areas in which livestock are housed, penned or pastured shall be implemented in a manner that minimizes soil and water degradation.
6.9.2 All manure storage and handling facilities, including composting facilities, shall be designed, constructed and operated to prevent contamination of ground and surface water.
Pest management shall involve in descending order of preference
7.1.1 An operator may introduce and manage bees on the enterprise for production benefits, such as the pollination of organic crops. If managed as a livestock species yielding organic apiculture products (e.g. honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, beeswax and bee venom), the operator shall manage bees in accordance with this standard.
7.1.2 The treatment and management of colonies shall respect the principles of organic production.
7.1.3 The sources of nectar, honeydew and pollen shall consist mainly of organically produced plants and spontaneous (wild) vegetation.
7.1.4 The management of bee health shall be based on appropriate measures such as selection of stock with disease-resistant traits, availability of suitable forage, and good apiary management practices.
7.1.5 When bees are placed in wild areas, consideration shall be given to the indigenous insect population.
7.1.6 An operator of an organic apicultural enterprise shall prepare an organic plan providing a detailed description of the sources of bees and production methods. The plan shall include a description of colony management for diet, disease, pests, breeding and related problems with production, in accordance with this standard. The operator shall also outline the details of crop management practices, where applicable.
18.104.22.168 Products from an organic apiculture operation in accordance with this standard shall be from colonies that have been under continuous organic management for not less than one year. During this period all non-organic wax shall be replaced by organically produced wax.
22.214.171.124 When no substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1, and no substances not listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, are used in the hive the year before the colonies are under continuous organic management, the replacement of wax is not necessary. However all products, such as wax, that are produced before the colonies are under continuous organic management, shall be considered non-organic.
126.96.36.199 Colonies and hives shall not be rotated between organic and non-organic management systems, except for colonies that have undergone a one-year transition after isolation and antibiotic treatment as described in par. 188.8.131.52.
7.1.8 Introduced Bees – The term introduced bees refers to replacement bees for established organic colonies – introduced bees are not established colonies. Introduced bees shall come from organic production units when commercially available. However, replacement bees (e.g. package bees or nucleus colonies) may be from organic sources or from non-organic sources provided that replacement bees are managed in accordance with this standard for at least 60 days before the removal of organic apiculture products from the hive.
7.1.9 Location of Hives – Apiaries shall be separated by a buffer zone of 3000 m where sources or zones of substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1, or flower-bearing agricultural crops treated with substances not listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists (i.e. genetic engineering or environmental contaminants), are present.
7.1.10 Forage and Feeding
184.108.40.206 The operator shall provide bees with adequate forage and water that are managed in accordance with this standard.
220.127.116.11 Owing to the long distances that foraging bees may travel, it is not possible to limit foraging activities to organic floral sources. While placement of colonies on an organic enterprise, in accordance with this standard, is preferable, hives may be located in other foraging sites, provided the operator can demonstrate that the area surrounding the foraging site is not treated or exposed to substances not in accordance with this standard.
18.104.22.168 Organic honey and pollen shall be the major foodstuff for adult bees, and maintained in adequate supplies in the colony, including leaving colonies, with reserves of honey and pollen sufficient for the colony to survive the dormancy period.
22.214.171.124 Organically and non-organically produced honey or sugars shall not be provided less than 30 days before the harvest of honey.
7.1.11 Colony Management
126.96.36.199 Hives shall be individually identifiable (marked) and shall be monitored regularly (i.e. at one- to two-week intervals, depending upon the colony, weather conditions and time of year).
188.8.131.52 Records shall be maintained in accordance with this standard that document all apiary management activities, including removal of supers and extraction of honey.
184.108.40.206 Clipping of wings on queen bees is prohibited.
220.127.116.11 Bees shall be removed from hives with bee escape-boards, shaking, brushing and forced-air blowers.
18.104.22.168 Synthetic materials in bee smokers are prohibited in accordance with par. 1.4.1.
22.214.171.124 Annual destruction of bee colonies following nectar flows is prohibited.
7.1.12 Hive Construction
126.96.36.199 Hives shall be constructed of natural materials, including wood and metal. Pressure-treated lumber or particleboard, wood preservatives and lumber treated with substances not in accordance with this standard shall not be used in hive construction or maintenance.
188.8.131.52 Exterior surfaces of the hive shall be painted only with non-lead-based paints.
184.108.40.206 Plastic foundation, if dipped in organic beeswax, is permitted.
7.1.13 Health Care
220.127.116.11 Preventive health-care practices shall be established and maintained, including the selection of bee stocks resistant to prevalent diseases and pests; the selection of colony locations appropriate to site-specific conditions; the availability of sufficient pollen and honey; the renewal of beeswax; the disinfection and regular cleaning of equipment; and the destruction of contaminated hives and materials.
18.104.22.168 The operator shall promote strong healthy colonies, including uniting weaker albeit healthy colonies, renewing queens if necessary, maintaining adequate hive density, inspecting colonies systematically and relocating diseased colonies to isolated areas.
7.1.14 Disease and Pest Management
22.214.171.124 The operator shall be knowledgeable about the life cycle and the behaviour of the bee, as well as related disease-causing organisms, parasitic mites and other pests. The operator shall also initiate efforts to restore the health of the colony in the presence of such pests, parasites or disease.
126.96.36.199 Every effort shall be made to breed and select queen bees for resistance to diseases and parasites, and to take preventive measures to control disease and pest problems.
188.8.131.52 Comb foundation shall be obtained from beeswax of the enterprise apiary or from other organic sources in accordance with this standard, where commercially available.
184.108.40.206 The operator shall use management methods or modified equipment to control pests and diseases.
220.127.116.11 Botanical compounds may be introduced into the hive provided that such remedies are in accordance with this standard and are not used within 30 days of nectar flow or whenever honey supers are on the hive.
18.104.22.168 The use of therapeutic applications of non-synthetic or synthetic substances to control pests, parasites and diseases is permitted, provided that such substances are in accordance with CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists.
22.214.171.124 The use of synthetic allopathic drugs (e.g. antibiotics) in organic apicultural production systems is prohibited. However, where the imminent health of the colony is threatened, such substances are allowed in accordance with CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists, and par.
126.96.36.199. Treated hives shall be placed in isolation and undergo a one-year transition period. All the wax shall be replaced with wax that is in accordance with this standard, and all veterinary treatments shall be clearly documented. Before such treatments, the hive shall be removed from the foraging area and taken out of organic production to prevent the spread of antibiotics within the apiary.
188.8.131.52 The practice of destroying the male brood is permitted only to contain infestation with varroa mites.
7.1.15 Extraction, Processing and Storage
184.108.40.206 Extraction of honey from a brood comb with live brood is prohibited.
220.127.116.11 The operator shall preserve and protect the quality and organic integrity of the honey, produced in accordance with this standard, once it is harvested.
18.104.22.168 Surfaces in direct contact with honey shall be constructed of food-grade materials or coated with beeswax.
22.214.171.124 The heating of honey for extraction shall not exceed 35°C, and the decrystallization temperature shall not exceed 47°C.
126.96.36.199 Gravitational settling shall be used to remove debris from extracted honey; sieves are permitted to remove residual debris.
188.8.131.52 Honey shall be packaged in airtight containers.
184.108.40.206 Cleaning products and insect repellents shall be limited to substances listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists.
220.127.116.11 Organic honey products shall not be produced from a hive or colony treated with substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1.
Note: The standards for maple production may also be applied to birch syrup production. In this section, "maple" may be replaced by "birch" and "maple sugaring" or "maple production" by "birch syrup production" as soon as it is necessary for the standards to be applied to this type of production. Similarly, if necessary, the term "sugar bush" may designate the birch syrup production site.
7.2.1 For organic maple products, the operator shall manage production units in accordance with this standard.
7.2.2 In the production of maple syrup or products derived from it, care shall be taken to ensure that the characteristic maple flavour predominates. Organic standards shall be respected during all stages of maple syrup production – the maintenance and development of the sugar bush, the collection and storing of the maple sap, and the processing of the sap into syrup and derived products. This includes the washing and the sterilization of equipment and the storage of finished products.
7.2.3 For sugar bush development and maintenance, the production of organic maple syrup shall be characterized by management practices that respect the sugar bush and its ecosystem. Development and maintenance shall be focused on preserving the ecosystem of the sugar bush and on improving the vigour of the tree population over the long term.
7.2.4 Tapping practices shall aim to minimize the risks to the health and longevity of the trees.
7.2.5 For the collection and storage of maple sap, the equipment and techniques shall aim to obtain a processed product of the highest possible quality. Equipment shall be in good condition and shall be used according to the manufacturer's instructions.
7.2.6 In converting sap to syrup, the sap can take on the odour of anything it comes into contact with during its processing. Care shall be taken to avoid denaturing the product at any point in the processing. Therefore, the use of any technology likely to alter the intrinsic qualities of the product is prohibited.
7.2.7 The cleaning of equipment used in syrup production including the collection system, pipes and tanks shall take place before and after every production season.
7.2.8 Transition – This standard shall be fully applied on a production unit for at least 12 months before the first harvest of organic maple sap. Substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 and substances not listed in section 4 of CAN/CGSB 32.311, Organic Productions Systems – Permitted Substances Lists, such as unapproved fertilizers or synthetic pesticides used in forest management, shall not have been used in the sugar bush for at least 36 months preceding the first harvest. Any parallel production is prohibited.
Note: The Canadian Organic Products Regulations require operators to document that they have not used substances prohibited by this standard and substances not listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists. The Organic Products Regulations also require that, in the case of an initial application for an organic certification of maple products, the application for certification must be filed 15 months before the day on which the product is expected to be marketed. During that period of time, the full compliance of this standard will be assessed by the certification body, and this assessment must at least include one inspection of the production unit during production in the year before maple products maple productsare eligible for certification.
7.2.9 Sugar Bush Development and Maintenance
18.104.22.168 Plant Diversity – Producers shall encourage species diversity in the sugar bush, in particular companion species to the sugar maple. Companion species should represent a minimum of 15% of the volume of wood within the sugar bush. The growth of these companion species shall be encouraged if they represent less than 15% of the volume of wood. It is prohibited to systematically clear undergrowth and brush, even when they are very abundant. This vegetation may however be cut in order to clear paths and to facilitate movement.
22.214.171.124 Thinning – When it is necessary, or when required by the administrator of the forest, thinning of the sugar bush shall be performed according to good forest management practices currently existing both in private and public forest and be well distributed throughout the sugar bush.
126.96.36.199 Tree Protection – To preserve plant diversity and the growth of young trees, access to the sugar bush by farm animals (e.g. beef or dairy cattle, pigs or domestic deer) is forbidden at all times. The pipeline network shall be installed so as not to wound or harm the growth of the trees.
188.8.131.52 Fertilization – Fertilization shall only be applied using recommendations based on observed, diagnosed and documented deficiencies. Authorized soil amendments for sugar bushes include wood ash, agricultural lime and non-synthetic fertilizers listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
184.108.40.206 Pest Control – Understanding the habits of the pests that may attack the sugar bush or production facilities, and seeking harmonious solutions to these attacks, are the preferred basis for pest control. For rodents and other destructive pests, mechanical and sticky traps are permitted, as are natural repellents in accordance with CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists. When populations are too high, they may be hunted. Poisons of any kind are prohibited. Only products appearing in CAN/CGSB-32.311 Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be used to control diseases or insects within the sugar bush.
220.127.116.11 Tree Diameter and Number of Taps – Table 1 indicates the maximum number of taps that a healthy maple can support, based on its chest height diameter (C.H.D.). C.H.D. is the tree's diameter measured at a height of 1.3 m above the soil surface. No maple can receive more than three tapholes.
|Diameter Measured at a Height of 1.3 m Above the Soil Surface||Maximum Number of Taps|
|Less than 20 cm||0|
|20 to 40 cm||1|
|40 to 60 cm||2|
|60 cm or greater||3|
18.104.22.168 Depth and Diameter of Tapholes – The depth of tapholes shall be no more than 4 cm, not counting the bark, or 6 cm, if the measurement is made from the surface of the bark. Taphole diameters shall not be greater than 11 mm. When a tree is unhealthy, has been attacked, is decaying or when its tapholes are healing badly, taphole standards shall then be stricter. The number of taps per tree should then be reduced to 2 when this standard allow 3, and to 1 when 2 are allowed, and it is prohibited to make tapholes when the D.B.H. (diameter at breast height) is less than 25 cm (~97/8 in.). If the majority of trees in the sugar bush are affected, this standard applies but requires using spouts of a reduced diameter or by abstaining from tapping.
22.214.171.124 Disinfection of Tapholes and Tapping Equipment – The use of any type of germicide, including paraformaldehyde tablets, or denatured alcohol (a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate), in tapholes and on tapping equipment, is prohibited. Only food-grade ethyl alcohol may be used as a disinfectant during tapping by sprinkling it on spouts and on drill bits only.
126.96.36.199 Over Tapping and Removal of Spouts – Double tapping, the practice of retapping a previously tapped tree during the same season is prohibited. Spouts shall be removed from the trees no later than 60 days following the year's final sap flow in order to allow the trees to heal. Renewing the tap, i.e. retapping the same hole during the production season, is allowed if the taphole diameter is not changed. The tapping of maple trees at any other time than the sugar bush operation period (maple syrup season) is forbidden.
7.2.11 Collection and Storage of Maple Syrup
188.8.131.52 Spouts – Only the use of spouts made of food-grade materials is permitted.
184.108.40.206 Sap Collection Under Vacuum – All parts of the collection system that might come in contact with the sap shall be made with materials suitable for use in the manufacture of a food product. Pumps shall be well maintained and their used oil shall be disposed of in a manner that causes no harm to the environment.
220.127.116.11 Storage – All equipment that may come in contact with the sap or its concentrate and filtrates, such as storage tanks, connections and transfer systems, shall be made with materials suitable for use in the manufacture of food products. This also applies to any surface coatings (e.g. paints), where applicable.
18.104.22.168 Collecting with Buckets – Pails or buckets may be made of aluminum or plastic, but not galvanized steel. A lid shall be used to cover the bucket. The same standards that apply to storage tanks apply to reservoirs used to transport the collected sap to the place where it will be boiled.
7.2.12 Conversion of Sap to Syrup
22.214.171.124 Sap Filtration – Sap shall be filtered before processing. This filtration shall not take away the sap's inherent qualities.
126.96.36.199 Sap Sterilization – Sterilization of the sap before its conversion to syrup is forbidden, either by treating it with ultraviolet radiation or by adding any type of product.
188.8.131.52 Osmosis Extraction and Membranes – The reverse osmosis technique of sap concentration is acceptable. Only membranes of the reverse osmosis and nano filtration (ultra-osmosis) types are allowed. In the off-season, osmosis membranes shall be stored in filtrate in a hermetically sealed container kept in a frost-free location. Sodium metabisulfite (SMBS) may be added to the filtrate to prevent mould growth. In such cases, the membrane shall be rinsed before its use the next spring with a volume of water equal to the hourly capacity of the membrane (e.g. 2728 L [600 gal.] of water for a 2728 L/h [600 gal./h] membrane). Off-site storage of the membrane (e.g. by the membrane supplier) shall be documented.
184.108.40.206 Evaporator - Evaporator pans shall be made of stainless steel. They shall be either tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welded or soldered using tin-silver solder. Pans made of galvanized steel, copper, aluminum and tin-plated steel are not allowed. Acceptable fuels include wood and heating oil. Used oils may be used as a primary or supplementary fuel for the evaporator. Air and environmental quality shall be controlled in the evaporator room. Also, the use of air injection systems is prohibited.
Note: In Canada, some additional provincial requirements may also apply on the use of used oils.
220.127.116.11 Defoamers - The only antifoaming agents permitted are Pennsylvania maple wood (Acer pennsylvanicum, also known as striped maple or moosewood) and all organic vegetable oils, except those made from soy, peanuts, sesame seeds or nuts.
Note: Oils made from soy, peanuts, sesame seeds or nuts are not permitted in order to ensure that organic syrup is produced without these potentially allergens.
18.104.22.168 Syrup Filtration and Other Treatments – Organic maple syrup shall not be refined by artificial means, bleached or lightened in colour. Simple filtration through cloth or paper, through a filter press or through food grade diatomaceous earth, silica powder or clay dust with a filter press to remove suspended solids is permitted.
22.214.171.124 Provisional Containers – The maple syrup not intended for immediate consumption shall be packed in containers of food-grade materials that do not alter the chemical composition or the quality of the syrup. Authorized containers include barrels made of stainless steel, fibreglass, food-grade plastic or metal with a food-grade coating inside. The reuse of single-use barrels is prohibited. All barrels shall carry a unique number, with a corresponding entry appearing in the record books of the producer. The date of fill-up shall also be recorded.
7.2.13 Cleaning of Equipment Intended for Use with Syrup Production
126.96.36.199 Authorized Products for Washing and Sanitizing – Washing of the collection system, pipelines and tanks shall take place before or after each production season. When operators need to carry out sanitizing operations in addition to washing, the products authorized include
All other products are prohibited, including those with a phosphoric acid base.
188.8.131.52 Osmosis Extraction and Membranes – The reverse osmosis unit and membranes shall only be cleaned using filtrate, according to the time and temperature recommended by the unit's manufacturer. If a Pure Water Permeability (PWP) test indicates that the membrane's controlled efficiency is less than 85% of the controlled efficiency recorded at the beginning of the season, caustic soda (NaOH) may be used to clean it. Following washing with NaOH, the volume of clean water used to rinse the unit shall be greater than or equal to 40 times the dead (residual) volume of the unit, meaning the total volume of the unit and its components once drained. The daily efficiency readings and calculations shall be recorded in a logbook. The membrane flushing water shall be disposed of in a manner that causes no harm to the environment. Off-season treatment of membranes with citric acid is permitted.
184.108.40.206 Evaporators – Evaporators may be washed with potable water at any time. Vinegar or fermented sap may be used at end of season.
220.127.116.11 Prohibited Products – Products other than those specified in par. 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124 are prohibited, including those based on phosphoric acid.
7.2.14 Food Additives and Processing Aids – Transformation of syrup into derivative products (e.g. maple butter, sugar and taffy) shall respect this standard. Cooking using microwaves is forbidden. No other product shall be added to syrup or other maple products during their production, whether to improve the taste, texture or appearance. Cones may be used if they constitute less than 5% of the weight of the final product.
7.2.15 Transport, Storage and Conservation – Maple syrup in bulk shall be stored in containers of food-grade materials that do not alter the chemical composition or quality of the syrup. Authorized containers include barrels made of stainless steel, fibreglass, food-grade plastic or metal with a food-grade coating inside. All barrels shall carry a unique number, with a corresponding entry appearing in the record books of the producer.
7.3.1 For organic mushrooms or mushroom products, the operator shall manage production units in a manner that ensures the substrates and mushrooms are not in contact with substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1. Substrates shall be produced in accordance with this standard or obtained from vegetation grown in areas free of substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 for at least three years, and shall be composted in accordance with this standard.
7.3.2 the production of organic mushrooms, the operator shall
7.3.3 The cleaning and maintenance of equipment and the use of sanitizers and disinfectants shall be limited to substances included in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
7.4.1 The operator shall use only seed produced under organic production methods, in accordance with this standard.
7.4.2 The operator shall use sources of water (e.g. potable water, distilled or processed by osmosis) that meet or exceed the quality standards for levels of microbial and chemical contaminants in drinking water.
7.4.3 A water quality monitoring program shall be in place, and the water shall be analyzed at least twice a year (once every six months).
7.4.4 Soluble fertilizers shall not be added to rinsing water.
7.4.5 Growth medium shall conform to the present standards (e.g. free of substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 for 36 months).
7.4.6 Substances used for cleaning or sanitizing seeds and sprouts shall be limited to the substances included in par. 7.3 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
7.4.7 Substances used for cleaning and maintenance of equipment shall be limited to the substances included in par. 7.3 and 7.4 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
7.5.1 The operator shall manage soil and crop production units with an in-ground permanent soil system or with a container system with soil free of substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1. In-ground permanent soil systems shall be free of substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 for at least three years before use. The operator shall totally abstain from using hydroponics and aeroponics.
Note: The Canadian Organic Products Regulations require operators to document that they have not used substances prohibited by this standard and substances not listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists. The Organic Products Regulations also require that, in the case of an initial application for an organic certification of crops grown in greenhouses with an in-ground permanent soil system, the application for certification must be filed 15 months before the day on which the product is expected to be marketed. During that period of time, the full compliance of this standard will be assessed by the certification body, and this assessment must at least include one inspection of the production unit during production in the year before crops grown in greenhouses with an in-ground permanent soil system may be eligible for certification and one inspection during production in the year crops grown in greenhouses with an in-ground permanent soil system are eligible for certification.
7.5.2 The operator may use supplemental heat with proper exhaust of burnt gasses, and supplemental lighting. Supplemental nutrition may be used in accordance with CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances List.
7.5.3 Plants and soil, including potting soil, shall not be in contact with substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1, including wood used for greenhouse structures or frames of raised beds treated with such substances.
7.5.4 The operator shall
7.5.5 Full-spectrum lighting is permitted.
7.5.6 The following procedures or processes are allowed to
7.5.7 For the prevention and control of disease, insects or other pests, the following procedures are allowed:
7.5.8 Soil regeneration and recycling procedures shall be practiced. Alternatives to crop rotation may be permitted in greenhouse production, such as grafting of plants on disease-resistant rootstock, winter soil-freezing, soil regeneration by incorporating biodegradable plant mulch (e.g. straw or hay), and partial or complete replacement of greenhouse soil or container soil, provided it is re-used outside the greenhouse for another crop.
7.6.1 An organic wild plant product shall be harvested from a clearly defined production area having documentation that no substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 have been applied for a period of three years immediately preceding the harvest of the wild crop.
7.6.2 The operator shall
7.6.3 Wild products can only be deemed organic, in accordance with this standard, if they are harvested in relatively undisturbed or stable natural settings. A wild plant shall be harvested or picked in a way that promotes its growth and production and that does not destroy the environment.
7.6.4 The production zone for wild crops shall be isolated from contact with substances prohibited by par. 1.4.1 by a clearly defined buffer zone (par 5.1.4 applies). The harvest sites shall be situated more than one (1) kilometer from potential contamination sources, such as golf courses, dumps, sanitary landfill sites and industrial complexes that could be a source of environmental pollution.
7.6.5 The operator that manages the harvest of wild crop products shall maintain records.
The major objective of an organic system is to maintain the inherent organic qualities of the product from production, preparation, storage, handling and labelling, to point of sale. Throughout the preparation and handling, the integrity of organic products is maintained by using techniques appropriate to the specific ingredients and limiting the degree of refinement while minimizing the use of food additives and processing aids. Ionizing radiation shall not be used on organic products for pest control, food preservation, elimination of pathogens or sanitation.
When calculating the organic percentage of a product, all ingredients shall be broken down into their constituent parts to distinguish between organic and non-organic in each ingredient. The calculation shall account for all constituents in the product.
8.2.1 The percentage of all organically produced ingredients in an organic product shall be calculated by the following:
8.2.2 The percentage of all organically produced ingredients in an organic product shall be rounded down to the nearest whole number.
Note: The Canadian Organic Products Regulations stipulate permitted labelling claims for organic products produced in accordance with this standard.
8.2.3 When an organic product contains 95% or more organic ingredients, a maximum of 5% non-organic ingredients may be used only if not commercially available in an organic form, and the cost of organic ingredient(s) is not to be used as a criterion for commercially available.
8.2.4 When an organic product contains less than 95% organic ingredients, non-organic ingredients may be used.
8.2.5 Both the non-organic and organic form of an ingredient shall not be used.
8.2.6 All non-organic ingredients of agricultural origin are subject to the requirements of par. 1.4.1 a., 1.4.1 h. and 1.4.1 k.
8.2.7 The product shall contain only ingredients of non-agricultural origin listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems – Permitted Substances Lists.
8.3.1 Processing methods shall be mechanical, physical or biological (e.g. fermentation and smoking) and shall minimize the use of non-agricultural ingredients, food additives and processing aids in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists.
8.3.2 All non-organic processing aids of agricultural origin are subject to the requirements of par. 1.4.1 a., 1.4.1 h., 1.4.1 k. and 1.4.1 l., and may be used if not commercially available in organic form, but are subject to annotations if substance is listed in par. 6.6 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists.
8.3.3 The product shall be made using only processing aids of non-agricultural origin listed in par. 6.6 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists.
8.3.4 Food additives and processing aids shall only be used to maintain
8.3.5 Organic products shall be packaged with materials that prevent commingling, contamination and pest infestation and do not cause a loss of organic integrity.
8.3.6 Any materials in contact with food shall be clean and of food-grade quality.
8.3.7 Only substances that appear in par. 7.3 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, may be used to clean, disinfect or sanitize organic food or food-contact surfaces without a mandatory removal event, provided that the origin and use are consistent with the annotation for that substance.
8.3.8 If the substances given in par 7.3 or 7.4 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists, are ineffective substances that do not appear in these lists may be used to clean, disinfect and sanitize organic food-contact surfaces, provided that
8.3.9 Organic products shall be segregated or otherwise protected at all times (i.e. during processing, storage, bulk and unbound stages) from non-organic products, to prevent commingling.
8.3.10 Where products not in accordance with this standard are also processed, packaged or stored in the unit operated in accordance with organic production,
8.3.11 Storage sites and transport containers for organic products shall be maintained and cleaned using methods appropriate for the organic products being stored and with materials in accordance with this standard.
8.4.1 Good manufacturing practices shall be adopted to prevent pests. Pest management practices shall first involve the removal of pest habitat and food; second, the prevention of access and environmental management (light, temperature and atmosphere) to prevent pest intrusion and reproduction; and third, mechanical and physical methods (traps), lures and repellents listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
8.4.2 If the practices given in par. 8.4.1 are ineffective, the operator may use pest control substances listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists. The operator shall record the use and disposition of all such substances.
8.4.3 If the practices given in par. 8.4.1 and 8.4.2 are ineffective, the operator may use pest control substances not listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists. In situations in which pest control substances not listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, are used indoors, the operator shall ensure that no organic products or packaging materials for those products are present. Documentation shall be maintained showing the movement of organic products in order to avoid contact with these substances and to record the use and disposition of all such substances.
8.4.4 Organic products shall be exposed only to pesticides or pest control substances listed in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, during any stage of production, transit, storage or border crossing.
8.5.1 Every measure shall be taken to ensure that the integrity of organic products is not compromised during transportation. Products shall be physically segregated or protected to avoid possible commingling or substitution of contents with non-organic products.
Note: The party owning the product at the point of transport is responsible for maintaining organic integrity in the transport process unless the transport operations are certified in their own capacity.
8.5.2 Organic products in transit to or from an off-site unit to undergo any activity as defined in the preparation definition shall be transported in a manner that shall prevent contamination or substitution of the content with substances or products not compatible with this standard. The following information shall accompany the product:
9.1 Operators shall monitor and document the application of substances, prohibited by par. 1.4.1, applied under any governmental program for the treatment of pests and diseases.
Note: In the event of an emergency pest or disease treatment, the reader should be aware that in Canada the operator is required to notify the certification body without delay of any change that may affect the certification of organic products.
Note: The criteria in this section do not apply to packaging materials, equipment surfaces, or other non-reactive substances. In creating and maintaining these lists, generic substances are not to be confused with brand name substances which may have added formulants, surfactants or wetting agents, the impact of which should be evaluated under a different process on a product-by-product basis.
10.1.1 Substances to be added to or deleted from CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be evaluated for compliance with the criteria outlined in par. 10.2 to 10.5 inclusive.
10.1.2 The system of review criteria detailed in this standard shall be the primary determinant for accepting or rejecting the addition of a substance to CAN/CGSB 32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
10.1.3 In evaluating substances for inclusion in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, all stakeholders shall have an opportunity to be involved.
10.2.1 Substances included in the lists, with exceptions as noted, shall be consistent with
10.2.2 Each substance shall be reviewed concerning its necessity, origin and mode of production, and the impacts of its production and envisioned use. These criteria are intended to be evaluated as a whole in order to protect the integrity of organic production. Each review shall include a detailed description and all information that demonstrates conformance to par. 10.3, 10.4 and 10.5. All available alternatives, including substances and practices that may currently be in use in other production systems, must be included in the evaluation.
10.2.3 After a decision on inclusion of a substance in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, has been made, any conditions governing its origin and usage shall be specified according to par. 10.6.
10.3.1 Soil Amendments - Substances used on soils and plants as amendments and listed in par. 4.2 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be necessary for obtaining or maintaining soil fertility or to fulfil specific requirements of crops, or specific soil conditioning and rotational purposes that cannot be satisfied by the requirements and practices of this standard.
10.3.2 Crop Production Aids and Materials - Substances used for the management of diseases, insects, weeds and other pests of plants and listed in par. 4.3 and 4.4 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be necessary for that purpose and shall be included when no other adequate biological, physical or plant breeding alternatives or effective management practices are available.
10.3.3 Livestock Production Substances
10.3.3.1 Substances used as livestock feed additives and supplements and listed in par. 5.2 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be
10.3.3.2 Substances used as livestock health care products and production aids and listed in par. 5.3 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be necessary to prevent or treat livestock health problems provided that other organic treatments are not available.
10.3.4 Food Ingredients and Processing Aids - In the absence of other available technology or substances that satisfy this standard, substances added to, or used in, the preparation, handling and storage of organic food products and listed in par. 6.3 to 6.6 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be
10.3.5 Sanitation and Pest Control Substances - Substances used for sanitizing production and processing equipment and facilities and for emergency pest control in such facilities that are listed in par. 6.7, 7.3 and 7.4 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be necessary and appropriate for the intended use.
10.4.1 Soil Amendments and Crop Production Aids - Substances used in soil conditioning and crop production (par. 4.2 to 4.4 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be of plant, animal, microbial or mineral origin and may undergo the following processes during production:
10.4.1.1 Substances of plant and animal origin shall be derived from crops and livestock produced in accordance with this standard unless such substances are not commercially available.
Exceptions: Substances produced by chemical processes or processes that chemically alter substances of plant, animal, microbial or mineral origin (i.e. synthetic compounds) may be considered for inclusion in par. 4.2 to 4.4 if all of the following conditions are met:
10.4.2 Livestock Production Substances
10.4.2.1 Substances of plant origin used as or added to livestock feed (par. 5.2 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, shall be obtained from organic sources in accordance with this standard or from sources occurring in nature such as for marine products. Substances of mineral origin shall only be used if they are of natural origin.
Exceptions: Synthetic substances may be included if they meet all of the following conditions:
10.4.2.2 Substances used for livestock health care and production aids (par. 5.3 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists) shall be of organic or non-synthetic origin whenever possible. Synthetic substances may be included subject to the annotation and review requirements in par. 10.6 and 10.7.
10.4.3 Food Ingredients and Processing Aids - Substances used as food ingredients or processing aids (as listed in par. 6.3 to 6.6 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists), shall be found in nature and may have undergone the following processes during production:
10.4.3.1 Substances of plant and animal origin shall be derived from crops and livestock produced in accordance with this standard. Substances of microbial origin shall be obtained using organic substrate.
Exceptions: Substances that are not from organic sources or that have been chemically synthesized may be considered for inclusion under the following conditions:
10.4.4 Sanitation and Pest Control Substances - Substances used for facility sanitation and emergency pest control in such facilities (as listed in par. 6.7, 7.3 and 7.4 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, may be of synthetic origin under the following conditions:
Consideration shall be given to the following impacts when evaluating a substance for inclusion in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems - Permitted Substances Lists.
10.5.1 All Substances
10.5.2 Substances Used in Primary Crop and Livestock Production - The on-farm impact of the use and potential misuse of the substances listed in par 4.2 to 5.3 of CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists on
10.5.3 Food Ingredients and Processing Aids - The impact of the use and potential misuse of the substances listed in par. 6.3 to 6.6 of CAN/CGSB 32.311, Organic Productions Systems - Permitted Substances Lists, on
When applicable, the annotation accompanying a substance shall include:
All substances included in CAN/CGSB-32.311, Organic Production Systems – Permitted Substances Lists, under exception criteria shall be
Informative note: In accordance with the Canadian General Standards Board's policy, standards are subject to a full review every five years.
11.1.1 Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
11.1.2 Certified Organic Associations of British Columbia (COABC)
11.1.3 Conseil des appellations réservées et des termes valorisants (CARTV)
11.1.4 Health Canada
11.1.5 OCPP/Pro-Cert Canada Inc.
11.1.6 Codex Alimentarius Commission
11.1.7 Council of the European Union
11.1.8 International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)
11.1.9 Japan, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
11.1.10 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, National Organic Program
The following addresses were valid at the date of publication.
11.2.1 The publication referred to in par. 2.1.1 may be obtained from;The Canadian General Standards Board, Sales Centre,
11.2.2 The publication referred to in par. 2.1.2 may be viewed at Department of Justice Canada
The following addresses were valid at the date of publication.
11.3.1 The publications referred to in par. 11.1.1 may be viewed at Department of Justice Canada
11.3.2 The publications referred to in par. 11.1.2 may be obtained from;The Certified Organic Associations of British Columbia,
11.3.3 The publication referred to in par. 11.1.3 may be obtained from;The Conseil des appellations réservées et des termes valorisants,
11.3.4 The publication referred to in par. 11.1.4 may be viewed at Department of Justice Canada
11.3.5 The publication referred to in par. 11.1.5 may be obtained from;Pro-Cert Organic Systems,
11.3.6 The publications referred to in par 11.1.6 may be obtained from;Renouf Publishing Co. Ltd.,
11.3.7 The publications referred to in par 11.1.7 may be obtained from;The Office for Official Publications of the European Communities,
11.3.8 The publication referred to in par. 11.1.8 may be obtained from;The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements,
11.3.9 The publications referred to in par. 11.1.9 may be obtained from;The International Policy Planning Division,
11.3.10 The publication referred to in par 11.1.10 may be obtained from;United States Department of Agriculture,