Public Accounts of Canada 2017 Volume I - Top of the page Navigation
Expenses consist of all charges which enter into the calculation of the annual deficit or surplus of the Government.
Accounting for expenses
The Government reports all expenses on an accrual basis.
Expenses for Government operations are recorded when goods are received or services are rendered. Transfer payments are recorded as expenses in the year the transfer is authorized and all eligibility criteria have been met by the recipient. Public debt charges are recorded when incurred. They include interest, servicing costs, costs of issuing new borrowings, amortization of premiums and discounts on market debt, as well as interest on public sector pensions and other employee and veteran future benefits.
Expenses include provisions to reflect changes in the value of assets or liabilities, including provisions for bad debts, for loans, investments and advances, as well as for inventory obsolescence. Expenses also include amortization of tangible capital assets, utilization of inventories, as well as prepaid expenses and other.
Organizations within the Government's reporting entity transact with each other on a day-to-day basis and thus contribute to the revenues and expenses recorded in the accounts. In preparing the consolidated financial statements, these "internal transactions" are eliminated so as to report on the basis of transactions with outside parties only.
Table 3.6 presents a comparative summary of external expenses by type. The table also discloses the external expenses by segment.
|Major transfer paymentsLink to footnote 1||Other transfer payments||Total transfer payments||Other expenses||Public debt chargesLink to footnote 3||Total expenses|
|Agriculture and Agri-Food||–||–||1,567||1,289||1,567||1,289||1,436||951||–||–||3,003||2,240|
|Canadian Heritage||–||–||1,204||1,056||1,204||1,056||2,884||2,763||–||(negative 116)||4,088||3,703|
|Environment and Climate Change||–||–||170||135||170||135||1,632||1,506||1||1||1,803||1,642|
|Families, Children and Social Development||70,839||72,396||8,489||6,465||79,328||78,861||2,863||2,882||–||–||82,191||81,743|
|Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard||–||–||99||94||99||94||1,935||1,544||–||–||2,034||1,638|
|Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship||–||–||1,177||1,083||1,177||1,083||1,127||1,138||–||–||2,304||2,221|
|Indigenous and Northern Affairs||–||–||9,474||7,843||9,474||7,843||2,961||1,408||–||–||12,435||9,251|
|Infrastructure and Communities||2,102||1,973||1,014||1,098||3,116||3,071||512||340||–||–||3,628||3,411|
|Innovation, Science and Economic Development||–||–||4,702||2,125||4,702||2,125||2,687||2,441||–||–||7,389||4,566|
|Office of the Governor General's Secretary||–||–||–||–||–||–||22||21||–||–||22||21|
|Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness||–||–||894||620||894||620||10,574||10,375||1||1||11,469||10,996|
|Public Services and Procurement||–||–||–||–||–||–||4,269||4,186||146||158||4,415||4,344|
|Provision for valuation and other items||–||–||(negative 218)||(negative 221)||(negative 218)||(negative 221)||2,254||455||–||–||2,036||234|
|Total expensesLink to footnote 2||159,590||148,755||41,580||34,874||201,170||183,629||85,986||87,368||24,109||25,443||311,265||296,440|
Expenses by segment
The Government's segmented information, which is based on the ministerial portfolio structure, groups the activities of departments, agencies and Crown corporations and other entities for which a Minister is responsible as described in Note 1 and Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements in Section 2 of this volume.
Government's cost of operations
Government's cost of operations consists of three major types: transfer payments, other expenses, and public debt charges.
The major transfer payments include payments to persons and payments to provinces and territories.
Payments to persons include payments for income support or income supplement. Assistance is based on age, family status, income, and employment criteria.
Payments to provinces and territories are made under the following programs:
- The fiscal arrangements are unconditional fiscal transfer payments to lower income provinces including subsidies under the Constitution Acts; and
- The Canada health transfer and the Canada social transfer are the major means for providing the federal share of social programs administered by the provinces.
The other transfer payments include various subsidies paid through federal programs to stabilize market prices for commodities, to develop new technologies, to conduct research, to establish new jobs through support for training and to promote educational and cultural activities. Also included are expenses of other consolidated entities and other miscellaneous payments.
This category covers the costs associated with programs directly delivered by the federal government such as national defence, food inspection, the Coast Guard, the federal court system, the operation of health facilities for natives and veterans, and the national parks system. It also includes the expenses of consolidated Crown corporations and other entities incurred with third parties.
Table 3.7 presents a comparative analysis by province and territory of certain transfer payments.
|Fiscal year||Old age security benefitsLink to footnote 4||Employment insurance||Fiscal arrangements||Quebec AbatementLink to footnote 5||Canada health transfer||Canada social transfer||Other major transfersLink to footnote 6||Children's benefits||Total|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||2016–2017||979||1,173||10||–||529||196||32||–||2,919|
|Prince Edward Island||2016–2017||240||258||381||–||148||55||16||–||1,098|
|Total provinces||2016–2017||49,379||20,612||17,967||(negative 4,451)||35,939||13,304||2,054||–||134,804|
|Total expenses for provinces and territories||2016–2017||49,685||20,711||21,570||(negative 4,451)||36,057||13,348||2,102||–||139,022|
|Accrual and other adjustments||2016–2017||(negative 1,523)||–||26||–||–||–||–||–||(negative 1,497)|
|2015–2016||(negative 1,541)||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||(negative 1,541)|
|Transfers made through the tax system||2016–2017||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||22,065||22,065|
|Total major transfer payments||2016–2017||48,162||20,711||21,596||(negative 4,451)||36,057||13,348||2,102||22,065||159,590|
Public debt charges
Public debt charges include the interest on unmatured debt and on pensions, other future benefits and other liabilities, the amortization of premiums and discounts on unmatured debt, and the servicing costs and the costs of issuing new borrowings.
A comparative summary of public debt charges is presented in Table 3.8. The table also discloses the reconciling items between total public debt charges as reported in the ministerial section of the Department of Finance in Section 6 of Volume II of the Public Accounts of Canada and the total expenses of the public debt indicated in Table 3.6 of this volume. The reconciling items include the interest expenses on capital leases as well as accrual and other adjustments.
|Amortization of discounts on Canada and Treasury bills|
|Amortization of premiums and discounts on all other debts|
|Real return bonds||(negative 136)||(negative 106)|
|Consumer price index adjustments on real return bonds||1,098||971|
|Cross-currency swap revaluation||(negative 335)||(negative 487)|
|Servicing costs and costs of issuing new borrowings||10||11|
|Capital lease obligations||200||209|
|Other unmatured debt||82||83|
|Total public debt charges related to unmatured debt||14,420||15,393|
|Pensions and other future benefits|
|Public sector pensions—Superannuation accounts||6,817||7,333|
|Less: allowance for pension adjustments||26||122|
|Consolidated Crown corporations and other entities pensions||(negative 144)||(negative 161)|
|Other employee and veteran future benefits|
|Public Service Health Care Plan and Pensioners' Dental Service Plan||801||729|
|Severance and other benefits||72||80|
|Accumulated sick leave entitlements||40||39|
|Veterans' disability and other future benefits||1,587||1,442|
|Royal Canadian Mounted Police disability and other future benefits||242||218|
|Consolidated Crown corporations and other entities||9||9|
|Total public debt charges related to pensions and other future benefits||9,482||9,843|
|Canada Pension Plan||1||2|
|Government Annuities Account||8||9|
|Deposit and trust accounts||16||19|
|Other specified purpose accounts||165||171|
|Total public debt charges related to other liabilities||207||207|
|Consolidated specified purpose accounts|
|Total public debt charges related to consolidated specified purpose accounts||3||3|
|Total public debt charges before consolidation adjustments||24,112||25,446|
|Less: consolidation adjustments||3||3|
|Total public debt chargesLink to footnote 7Link to footnote 8||24,109||25,443|
|Total public debt charges under statutory authorities before accrual and other adjustments and consolidation adjustments||21,165||22,644|
|Accrual and other adjustments||2,947||2,802|
|Consolidation adjustments||(negative 3)||(negative 3)|
|Total public debt charges||24,109||25,443|
Expenses by object
Table 3.9 reconciles the total net expenditures by object initially recorded by departments under the partial accrual method of accounting to the total expenses which is based on the full accrual method of accounting. Reconciliation items represent the effect of consolidation and full accrual accounting.
|Total net expenditures||Reconciliation||Total expenses|
|Transportation and communications||2,834||(negative 64)||2,770|
|Professional and special services||11,910||(negative 2,208)||9,702|
|Repair and maintenance||3,388||(negative 54)||3,334|
|Utilities, materials and supplies||2,846||283||3,129|
|Acquisition of land, buildings and works||2,274||(negative 2,274)||–|
|Acquisition of machinery and equipment||3,953||(negative 3,953)||–|
|Other subsidies and expenses||10,780||(negative 1,733)||9,047|
|Amortization of tangible capital assets||–||5,168||5,168|
|Net loss on disposal of assets||–||157||157|
|Total other expenses||80,362||5,624||85,986|
|Public debt charges||21,166||2,943||24,109|
|Total gross expenses||257,636||53,629||311,265|
|Revenues netted against expenditures||(negative 11,681)||11,681||–|
Expenditures under statutory authorities
Spending authorities provided by statutory authorities are for specified purposes and for such amounts and such time periods as the acts prescribe. These spending authorities do not generally lapse at the end of the year during which they were granted. Expenditures under such authorities account for approximately half of the total program expenses each year.
Table 3.10 presents a comparative summary of the ministerial expenditures under statutory authorities.
|Old age security payments (Old Age Security Act)||36,749||35,050|
|Canada health transfer (Part V.1—Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act)||36,058||34,025|
|Public debt charges||21,166||22,644|
|Fiscal equalization (Part I—Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act)||17,880||17,341|
|Canada social transfer (Part V.1—Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act)||13,348||12,959|
|Guaranteed income supplement payments (Old Age Security Act)||10,922||9,922|
|Territorial financing (Part I.1—Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act)||3,603||3,561|
|Gas Tax Fund||2,100||2,000|
|Universal child care benefit (Universal Child Care Benefit Act)||1,976||8,759|
|Canada study grants to qualifying full and part-time students pursuant to the Canada Student Financial Assistance Act||975||714|
|Canada Education Savings grant payments to Registered Education Savings Plans (RESPs) trustees on behalf of RESP beneficiaries to encourage Canadians to save for post-secondary education for their children||859||821|
|Contribution payments for the AgriInsurance program||702||604|
|Payments related to the direct financing arrangement under the Canada Student Financial Assistance Act||662||618|
|Judges' salaries, allowances and annuities, annuities to spouses and children of judges and lump sum payments to spouses of judges who die while in office||535||533|
|Old age allowance payments (Old Age Security Act)||530||513|
|Payments to the Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Resource Revenues Fund||455||301|
|Payments to International Development Association||442||442|
|Youth allowances recovery (Federal-Provincial Fiscal Revision Act, 1964)||(negative 805)||(negative 811)|
|Alternative payments for standing programs (Part VI—Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act)||(negative 3,646)||(negative 3,641)|
|Superannuation, supplementary retirement benefits, death benefits and other pensionsLink to footnote 10|
|Government's contributions to the public service pension plan and the Retirement Compensation Arrangements Account||2,518||3,439|
|Government's contributions to the Canada and the Quebec pension plans||701||665|
|Government's contribution to the Employment Insurance Operating Account||308||311|
|Government's contributions to the Death Benefit Account||14||14|
|Recoveries from revolving funds||–||(negative 91)|
|Government's contribution to the Canadian Forces Pension Plan and the Retirement Compensation Arrangements Account||947||1,000|
|Government's contribution to the Canada and the Quebec pension plans||186||184|
|Government's contribution as employer to the Employment Insurance Operating Account||80||84|
|Statutory payments under the Supplementary Retirement Benefits Act||2||2|
|Government's contribution to the Death Benefit Account||3||2|
|Royal Canadian Mounted Police|
|Government's contribution to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Pension Plan and the Retirement Compensation Arrangements Account||491||353|
|Government's contribution to the Canada and the Quebec pension plans||58||59|
|Government's contribution as employer to the Employment Insurance Operating Account||25||27|
|Statutory payments under the Supplementary Retirement Benefits Act||7||8|
|Shared Services Canada|
|Government's contribution to the Canada and the Quebec pension plans||3||3|
|Government's contribution to the Employment Insurance Operation Account, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Pension Plan and the Retirement Compensation Arrangements Account||1||1|
|All other statutory expenditures||3,281||3,363|
|Total ministerial expenditures under statutory authoritiesLink to footnote 11||153,206||156,230|
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